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From the article: “Namibia’s capital city, Windhoek, is no exception when it comes to unplanned urbanisation. I conducted a study into informal settlements in the capital. The main aim was to establish the relationship that people had with the land, as well as their access to basic services. I found that almost 85% of the informal settlers in Windhoek do not own the land they occupy. I also found that most had limited access to public municipal services. These two issues are closely interlinked. Our study shows that formalised land tenure is a condition for households to access municipal services privately. The people I interviewed said their need to own land was more pressing than their need to access services. This makes sense given that formal land tenure is a requirement for communities to access public municipal services. We conclude from our findings that there is an urgent need to formalise land policy in Windhoek’s informal settlements. But that if the Namibian government wants to improve the living conditions of the urban poor, it needs to introduce policies that recognise the complex nature and relations of informal settlements.”